Although jitter is a random variable, it is the sum of several other random variables which are at least somewhat independent: the individual queuing delays of the routers along the Internet path in question. Motivated by the central limit theorem, jitter can be modeled as a gaussian random variable. This suggests continually estimating the mean delay and its standard deviation and setting the playout delay so that only packets delayed more than several standard deviations above the mean will arrive too late to be useful. In practice, the variance in latency of many Internet paths is dominated by a small number (often one) of relatively slow and congested bottleneck links. Most Internet backbone links are now so fast (e.g. 10 Gbit/s) that their delays are dominated by the transmission medium (e.g. optical fiber) and the routers driving them do not have enough buffering for queuing delays to be significant.[citation needed]
While understanding the basics of VoIP and SIP is important, setting one of these systems up will require some general network knowledge, too. For the best quality, you will need to meet a minimum upstream and downstream data throughput requirement. In addition, you'll also need to meet a minimum latency number (that is, the time between when a signal leaves a remote computer and when your system receives it), typically measured in milliseconds. It is possible to test your network connection to see if it will support a VoIP service. RingCentral offers this service from their website, other vendors like to have their service engineers do it for you.  
E911 (Enhanced 911) is a little different to traditional 911 services and is something that you should be aware of. With E911 you need to provide your home address, and this information gets passed to the emergency services if you dial 911. The concerns are that if you have a power outage or an Internet outage then you will not be able to dial 911. If you have a cell phone then you can dial 911 from your device. If you are ONLY reliant on VoIP for your phone service you should be aware of this situation.

When shoppers ask which is the best VoIP service or who are the best VoIP providers, no two answers will ever be the same. Keep in mind, that the best service for one individual or business, might not be the most ideal for you. It’s all about finding a VoIP provider that can cater to your specific needs. Users should consider these factors when comparing VoIP providers:

Voice Over IP (VoIP) service is great for both businesses and homes. Whether you live in a small apartment or a three-story house, you can save money and get telephone services you never knew existed. No matter how much they promise, the landline phone companies are still stuck in the twentieth century. They simply can’t compete with the features and prices offered by residential VoIP providers. The traditional phone companies charge you everything from tax, service charges and sometimes the occasional “hidden” fee. Residential VoIP plans and services can cut your home phone bill by an average of 50% every month. With additional internet searches, coupon sites, sign-up bonuses, and monthly specials, you can save even more. Residential VoIP service is a bargain-hunter’s dream. GetVoIP.com can help you find the best home phone provider for your needs.
Yealink SIP-T54S is an easy-to-use Media IP Phone with a 2.8-inch color-screen and a distinctive appearance and structure. For its simplified and human-friendly design as well as user interface, it brings the IP phone and users more closer and unceasingly boosts the operating experience. With Yealink Optima HD voice technology, T54S enhances its audio quality via adding Opus audio codec, so that it delivers superb audio quality and crystal clear voice communications. Yealink SIP-T54S built with Gigabit Ethernet technology, a built-in Bluetooth and a built-in USB 2.0 port, enhancing collaboration and productivity.
For the business that needs better tools for allowing collaboration between employees, 8×8 has some strong features. Employees individually can host conference calls, either audio and video calls. They can set up online chats with each other, making it easier to stay in communication, even when they’re out in the field. 8×8 also provides integration with other collaborative tools you may already be using, like Salesforce, Microsoft Office 365, or Google G Suite.
When shoppers ask which is the best VoIP service or who are the best VoIP providers, no two answers will ever be the same. Keep in mind, that the best service for one individual or business, might not be the most ideal for you. It’s all about finding a VoIP provider that can cater to your specific needs. Users should consider these factors when comparing VoIP providers:

First, there might be a very low cost or even free "basic" or "introductory" tier that's just so feature poor that the vast majority of customers will opt for the next level up, which will be the full-priced tier. Another common practice is a one- or two-year contract, each with a slightly lower price that are offered next to a significantly higher-priced month-to-month tier. Additionally, while most residential VoIP services offer unlimited calling, some vary their pricing on call restrictions. Those will come either in the form of minutes (with higher pricing attached to monthly overages) or geographic region. The latter usually start with nationwide calling and then tack on another charge for worldwide calling or even separate charges for different countries.
GoToConnect VoIP is a simple setup if you buy their preconfigured phones—which come from recognized names like Cisco, VTech, and Panasonic, so quality isn’t an issue. GoToConnect’s customer service is US-based, with 24/7 phone, live chat, and email options, as well as specific lines for small businesses, larger businesses, government entities, and education clients. GoToConnect also hosts an exhaustive YouTube channel dedicated to understanding phone systems and features.
Be aware, however, that there are significant security implications regarding the use of mobile softphones on employee-owned devices. While it's possible for your employees to simply download the appropriate software from their respective app store, your IT department should be involved with allowing access while also confirming that necessary security steps are taken. Also be aware that there are important reasons not to allow soft phone installations on private devices of any type because you may not be able to remove that phone client if the employee leaves the company, and because local laws may impact how much control you have over the use of the device.
Editors' note: Line2 is owned by J2 Global, the parent company of PCMag's publisher, Ziff Media Group. If you have questions you need answered about business VoIP, then remember to subscribe to PCMag's Small Business Newsletter and join the [email protected] business community on LinkedIn, and you can ask vendors, other professionals like yourself, and PCMag's editors.   
While we think Grasshopper is great for small businesses, it misses out on our “Best Small-Business Phone Service” title because, compared to Ooma, Grasshopper is a little expensive. Grasshopper plans start at $26 per month, assuming you sign up for annual billing. And starting plans include only one business phone number with up to three extensions.
The interest that VoIP technology is generating for consumers and businesses alike, is creating a high level of demand that is being addressed by more and more providers entering the market. Choosing the best home phone service can now be a challenge as it can be difficult to compare providers that have different pricing structures, different features and different contract terms. Many residential providers names are becoming familiar in the home, such as Vonage, MagicJack and Ooma. Vonage, one of the more expensive options today, is popular due to its unlimited international calling feature. Evaluating Vonage competitors can save you even more money depending on your exact needs.
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